The LoRaWAN wireless communication protocol offers two different types of network architectures:
1. Operated or public network
An operator covers a territory through LoRaWAN gateways connected to a network core. As an administrator, any sensor aiming to connect to this network will need to obtain a subscription through the operator or an authorised reseller. The types of sensor subscriptions vary according to the operators, the number of data sent, upstream and downstream messages, etc.
2. Private or local network
A customer can install his own LoRaWAN gateway and administer it, thus having control over his network. In this case, and contrary to an operator network, there is no connectivity cost to pay per sensor. However, depending on the type of core network chosen for the LoRaWAN gateway, there may be a subscription fee.